Why do women tend to outlive men?

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In the United States, the average life expectancy for women is 81 years, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). For men, it’s 76 years. Around the world, women live longer, on average. So why do women tend to outlive men?

Two of the main causes are biological, said Virginia Zarulli, an associate professor of demography at the University of Southern Denmark. The first cause relates to differences in sex hormones, at least in cisgender people (people whose gender identity matches the biological sex they were assigned at birth). Cisgender women produce more estrogen and less testosterone than cisgender men do. Estrogen provides protection against a range of diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, according to a 2017 study in the journal Biology of Sex Differences

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